Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a set of conditions associated with an increase in hydrostatic pressure in the arteries of the systemic circulation. Hypertension is the most common disease in the adult population in developed countries.
There is primary and secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension represents up to 90-95% of all cases of hypertension. Primary hypertension is a multifactorial disease, which is based on genetic variations that cause the high activity of long-acting stress mechanisms.
There are three main etiological risk factors for primary hypertension:
- Adaptive factors
- External environmental factors.
- Genetic predisposition (about 30% of genetic factors are related to the functioning of the renin-angiotensin system)
Hypertension is the cornerstone of serious diseases such as myocardial infarction and acute stroke. It can also cause permanent damage to various organs, leading to chronic conditions such as kidneys, eyes, heart, and brain. The life expectancy of middle-aged patients with hypertension does not exceed 20-30 years, while for those at high risk it is 10 years. Therefore, to improve the quality and longevity, early diagnosis and early treatment are required.
Detection of genetic polymorphisms in the genes of key regulatory factors of the cardiovascular system, especially those associated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) function, becomes urgent.
Angiotensinogen is a key component of the renin-angiotensin system, a precursor molecule of angiotensin II, the major active peptide. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyses angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin and ACE polymorphisms play a key role in the development of hypertension. Other genes responsible for intracellular ion transport, regulation of aldosterone synthesis, and smooth muscle fibers tone also play an important role.
Indications for genetic analysis
- Ischemic heart disease
- Acute myocardial infarction
- Diabetic kidney disease
- Venous thromboembolism
- Placental abnormalities
- Disorders of microcirculation and vascular tone
- Choice of medications for hypertension