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CD14 Soluble (sCD14), Serum

Includes 1 test
10 Days

CD14 is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of specific immune cells, including monocytes and macrophages. It plays a crucial role in the innate immune system by recognizing and binding to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) found in Gram-negative bacteria's cell walls. This interaction triggers an immune response against the invading pathogens. Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a truncated, soluble form of the CD14 protein. It is released into the bloodstream primarily by monocytes and macrophages. sCD14 is essentially a part of the CD14 molecule that has been cleaved and is no longer bound to the cell membrane.

  • Innate Immunity: sCD14 can bind to LPS, just like the membrane-bound CD14. It can help recognize and neutralize bacterial pathogens in the bloodstream, triggering the body's immune response to infection.
  • Inflammatory Response: Elevated levels of sCD14 in the blood can indicate an inflammatory response, as it is released during infection or inflammation.

Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a biomarker in various clinical and research settings due to its association with inflammation and immune responses. Its measurement in the bloodstream can provide valuable information about the presence and severity of certain medical conditions.

  • Infection and Sepsis: Elevated levels of sCD14 are often associated with infections, particularly bacterial infections. In cases of sepsis, a systemic response to infection, sCD14 levels, can be used to indicate the severity of the infection and the body's immune response. Monitoring sCD14 levels can help clinicians diagnose and manage sepsis.
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBD, which includes conditions like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. sCD14 has been studied as a marker of disease activity in IBD. Elevated sCD14 levels in the blood are often seen in individuals with active IBD, making it a valuable biomarker for disease monitoring.
  • HIV Infection: In the context of HIV infection, sCD14 has been explored as a biomarker of immune activation and inflammation. Elevated sCD14 levels are associated with increased immune activation, which is a feature of HIV infection. Monitoring sCD14 levels can provide insight into the status of the immune response in individuals with HIV.
  • Other Inflammatory Conditions: Elevated sCD14 levels have been observed in various inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and certain autoimmune diseases. It can serve as a marker of the extent of systemic inflammation in these disorders.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Some studies have suggested a potential link between sCD14 levels and cardiovascular disease risk.
  • Research and Drug Development: In clinical research, sCD14 is used to investigate the role of immune activation and inflammation in various diseases. It can be used to evaluate treatment responses and disease progression in clinical trials, helping researchers understand the impact of therapeutic interventions.
  • Prognostic Value: In some cases, sCD14 levels may have prognostic value, helping predict the course of a disease or the likelihood of complications. For example, higher sCD14 levels in sepsis may indicate a worse prognosis.
sCD14 and Leaky Gut

Soluble CD14 (sCD14) has been studied in the context of leaky gut or increased intestinal permeability, a condition where the lining of the intestines becomes more permeable than expected, potentially allowing unwanted substances to enter the bloodstream. This increased permeability can be associated with various gastrointestinal and systemic health issues.

  • Inflammatory Response: A leaky gut is often associated with increased inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. As a part of the body's response to this inflammation, sCD14 levels in the bloodstream may rise. This occurs because sCD14 is released into the bloodstream when there is damage or inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. sCD14 can be seen as a marker of this inflammatory response.
  • Bacterial Translocation: In a healthy gut, the intestinal barrier acts as a defense mechanism to prevent harmful substances, such as bacteria and bacterial products like lipopolysaccharides (LPS), from entering the bloodstream. When the gut lining becomes more permeable, there is a risk of bacterial translocation, where these substances can cross into the bloodstream. sCD14, as a binding protein for LPS, can play a role in capturing and neutralizing LPS, helping to prevent an exaggerated immune response.
  • Biomarker of Leaky Gut: Elevated sCD14 levels have been observed in individuals with conditions associated with increased intestinal permeability, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. In these conditions, a "leaky gut" can release sCD14 into the bloodstream as a response to mucosal damage.
  • Diagnostic Implications: Monitoring sCD14 levels may provide insights into the degree of intestinal permeability in certain gastrointestinal conditions. It can be a valuable biomarker to assess the severity of mucosal damage and inflammation in the gut.
Additional information
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