Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key component in regulating the fibrinolytic mechanism. It binds to the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and inhibits the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, which results in a decrease in fibrinolysis (ie blood clotting).
Genetic and environmental factors influence plasma PAI-1 concentration. The most common genetic factor is 4G/5G (insertion/deletion) polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene activator region. Homozygosity for the 4G/4G genotype has been associated with increased plasma PAI-1 concentration while homozygosity for the 5G/5G genotype has been associated with a low concentration. The 4G/5G heterozygous genotype is most common in individuals with a normal plasma PAI-1 concentration.
High concentrations of PAI-1 result in decreased fibrinolytic activity, which has been associated with an increased risk for arterial and venous thrombosis. High levels of PAI-1 may be related to the pathogenetic mechanisms of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and ischemic strokes. In addition, women with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, stillbirth and recurrent spontaneous abortions have an increased frequency of homozygous polymorphism (4G/4G) for the PAI-1 gene.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.