Screening for antibodies against the MOG antigen is performed in patients under investigation for multiple sclerosis and optic neuromyelitis (NMO).
The myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located in the myelin sheath that surrounds the nerve fibers. Elevated levels of antibodies against MOG may occur sporadically in patients with multiple sclerosis but should also be considered in patients negative for aquaporin-4 antibodies suspected of having neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO / NMOSD).
The detection of antibodies against MOG in serum is a more sensitive indicator than the measurement of the antibodies in CSF. Patients with high levels of serum MOG antibodies may sometimes also have detectable levels in CSF, indicating the passage of antibodies through the blood-brain barrier. The significance of MOG antibodies in CSF is unclear.