Urine albumin (microalbumin) measurement is commonly used in screening for the possible onset of kidney disease in diabetic patients.
Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a complication of diabetes and is characterized by proteinuria. But before apparent proteinuria (> 300 mg/24h) develops, urinary albumin excretion is gradually increased in those diabetic patients who are destined to develop diabetic nephropathy. Certain therapeutic manipulations (such as more aggressive maintenance of blood pressure, in particular administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, more aggressive blood sugar control, and possibly reduced protein intake) may delay or prevent the development of kidney disease. For these reasons, it is important to identify small, abnormal increases in urinary albumin excretion, i.e. microalbuminuria.
Albumin is one of the two major protein fractions of the blood. Albumin plays an important role in maintaining plasma osmotic pressure and in the transport of bilirubin, fatty acids, drugs, hormones, and other water-insoluble substances. Protein is normally almost completely absorbed by the kidneys and is not detected in the urine. Therefore, the presence of detectable amounts of albumin or protein in the urine is indicative of abnormal renal function.
What Do Pathological Rates Mean?
- Increase: Acute tubular necrosis, amyloid disease, severe anemia, Bartter's syndrome, Butler-Albright's syndrome, Bright's disease, heart disease, nervous system dysfunction, stroke, convulsions, cystitis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, diabetic nephropathy, diphtheria, reaction to drugs, epididymitis, physical activity, Fanconi syndrome, fever, galactosemia, glomerular damage, glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, Goodpasture syndrome, heavy metal poisoning, hyperthyroidism, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, intestinal obstruction, leukemia, liver disease, membranous nephropathy, multiple myeloma, nephritis, nephrosclerosis, nephrotic syndrome, pneumonia, poisoning (arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, ether, lead, mercury, opiates, phenol, phosphorus, propylene glycol, sulfosalicylic acid, turpentine), polycystic kidney disease, prostatitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial, chronic, hypertensive), kidney radiation, renal tubular acidosis, renal venous thrombosis, sclerosis, septicemia, streptococcal infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, preeclampsia, tumors (bladder, renal), typhoid fever, Wilson's disease. Medications: Amphotericin B, ampicillin, aspirin, bacitracin, barbiturates, cephaloridine, corticosteroids, gentamicin, gold salts, kanamycin, mercury diuretics, neomycin sulfate, phenylbutazone, polymyxin B.
- Decrease: No clinical significance
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.