Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important suppressor of immune system responses. In vitro studies indicate that IL-10 directly inhibits IL-2 and IL-5 production by Th1 and Th2 cells. IL-10 acts as an immunosuppressant of antigen-presenting cells, expression of chemokines on monocytes, and bactericidal macrophage responses. Some studies show that IL-10 plays a role in the control of inflammation, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines that also include IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26/AK155. Human IL-10 is an 18 kDa molecule with four cysteines that form two disulfide bridges. IL-10 is secreted by many types such as activated hematopoietic cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and placental cytotrophoblast. In serum, IL-10 is a homodimer with an apparent molecular weight of 39 kDa. The human IL-10 gene is located on chromosome 1 as a single copy in the genome.
IL-10 performs its biological activities through a heterodimeric receptor consisting of two subunits, IL-10 R-alpha/IL-10R1, and IL-10 R-beta/IL-10R2. The homodimer IL-10 binds first to two IL-10 R-alpha chains, resulting in activation of the two IL-10 R-beta chains and subsequently in a cascade of processes. The IL-10R-alpha subunit is a 110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in lymphocytes, NK cells, macrophages, monocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, cytotrophoblasts, astrocytes, and activated hepatocytes. The IL-10 Rbeta subunit is a 75 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein found in many cell types and which does not directly bind IL-10 but is essential for transmitting the original message. The IL-10 R-beta subunit is also associated with the IL-20 R-alpha, IL-22 R-alpha, and IL-28 R-alpha subunits in the formation of receptor complexes for IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29.
The involvement of IL-10 in immunoreactivity includes both positive and negative effects. It promotes phagocytic activity and Th2 responses but suppresses antigen presentation and Th1 proinflammatory responses. IL-10 is a critical molecule in the control of viral infections as well as allergic and autoimmune inflammation. IL-10 levels are elevated in serum, peritoneal fluid, and saliva in patients with melanoma, ovarian cancer, and Sjogren's syndrome. IL-10 has decreased serum levels during preeclampsia and in infertile men's sperm. IL-10 polymorphisms are associated with the development of autoimmunity, viral infections, and cancers, whereas IL-10 R-alpha polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia.
Expression of IL-10 is increased in parasitic infections such as Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma. In addition, high IL-10 expression was detected in mycobacterial infections such as Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium avium. High expression levels of IL-10 found in retroviral infections induce immune deficiency.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
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