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Interleukin 10 (IL-10)

Includes 1 test
2 Days

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important suppressor of immune system responses. In vitro studies indicate that IL-10 directly inhibits IL-2 and IL-5 production by Th1 and Th2 cells. IL-10 acts as an immunosuppressant of antigen-presenting cells, expression of chemokines on monocytes, and bactericidal macrophage responses. Some studies show that IL-10 plays a role in the control of inflammation, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis.

Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines that also include IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26/AK155. Human IL-10 is an 18 kDa molecule with four cysteines that form two disulfide bridges. IL-10 is secreted by many types such as activated hematopoietic cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and placental cytotrophoblast. In serum, IL-10 is a homodimer with an apparent molecular weight of 39 kDa. The human IL-10 gene is located on chromosome 1 as a single copy in the genome.

IL-10 performs its biological activities through a heterodimeric receptor consisting of two subunits, IL-10 R-alpha/IL-10R1, and IL-10 R-beta/IL-10R2. The homodimer IL-10 binds first to two IL-10 R-alpha chains, resulting in activation of the two IL-10 R-beta chains and subsequently in a cascade of processes. The IL-10R-alpha subunit is a 110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in lymphocytes, NK cells, macrophages, monocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, cytotrophoblasts, astrocytes, and activated hepatocytes. The IL-10 Rbeta subunit is a 75 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein found in many cell types and which does not directly bind IL-10 but is essential for transmitting the original message. The IL-10 R-beta subunit is also associated with the IL-20 R-alpha, IL-22 R-alpha, and IL-28 R-alpha subunits in the formation of receptor complexes for IL-22, IL-26, IL-28, and IL-29.

The involvement of IL-10 in immunoreactivity includes both positive and negative effects. It promotes phagocytic activity and Th2 responses but suppresses antigen presentation and Th1 proinflammatory responses. IL-10 is a critical molecule in the control of viral infections as well as allergic and autoimmune inflammation. IL-10 levels are elevated in serum, peritoneal fluid, and saliva in patients with melanoma, ovarian cancer, and Sjogren's syndrome. IL-10 has decreased serum levels during preeclampsia and in infertile men's sperm. IL-10 polymorphisms are associated with the development of autoimmunity, viral infections, and cancers, whereas IL-10 R-alpha polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia.

Expression of IL-10 is increased in parasitic infections such as Schistosoma mansoni, Leishmania, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma. In addition, high IL-10 expression was detected in mycobacterial infections such as Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium avium. High expression levels of IL-10 found in retroviral infections induce immune deficiency.



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