Plasma cryofibrinogen, together with serum cryoglobulins, are used for the evaluation of patients with vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and lymphoproliferative diseases as well as for the evaluation of patients with macroglobulinemia or myeloma and in whom specific symptoms occur upon exposure to the cold.
Cryoglobulins or cold agglutinins are antibodies that are capable of adhering (forming aggregates) to human O blood cells in the cold (at < 20°C) but not at room temperature or at higher temperatures. Cryoglobulins are found in very small quantities in the blood of many people and react at very low temperatures (below 4°C). Elevated levels of cryoglobulins may be present in the serum of patients after infections. Their presence and activity at temperatures below 20°C are called "broad spectrum" cryoglobulins. The presence of cryoglobulins can cause adhesions or aggregates, which can lead to thrombosis, extremities pain, and hemolysis.
This test is indicated when other blood tests are suspected of presenting cryoglobulins. It can also be performed to investigate hemolytic anemia or to investigate conditions such as painful cold extremities (Raynaud's) or other similar reactions to the cold, such as surgery. The cryoglobulins detected in various pathological conditions such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma, T cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, lymphocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, varicella, infectious mononucleosis, viral pneumonia, in Mycoplasma pneumonia, trypanosomiasis and uterine sarcoma.
Positive results require immunoprecipitation and immunoglobulin identification.
Cryoprecipitates observed in plasma but not in serum are due to cryofibrinogen. Cryofibrinogen is extremely rare and its presence has been associated with vasculitis. Because of the rarity of clinically significant cryofibrinogenemia, screening for cryoglobulins is usually sufficient to investigate cryoproteins.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.