Serum CYFRA 21-1 cancer antigen measurement is used to manage non-small cell lung cancer patients in combination with clinical information and other diagnostic tests.
Keratins are filamentous proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Certain fragments of cytokeratin 19, called CYFRA 21-1, are often found in the blood of cancer patients.
Differential diagnosis of suspected pulmonary masses is essential for proper choice of treatment. While early stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and individual lung metastases from other cancers are mostly removed by surgery, non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, metastases are treated with chemo- and/or radiation-therapeutic approaches. It is not always possible to perform a biopsy for the histopathological classification of the tumors because of the unstable clinical condition of the patients or the location of the tumor.
The main indication for measuring CYFRA 21-1 in patients' serum is monitoring the course of non-small cell lung cancer and detecting relapses after initial treatment. Successful treatment is accompanied by a rapid decrease in serum CYFRA 21-1 within the normal range. CYFRA 21-1 values have a clear prognostic value in both early and advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer, with elevated serum cancer antigen levels being indicative of advanced stage tumor and poor prognosis.
In addition to its role as a sensitive biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer, CYFRA 21-1 can be used as an indicator in predicting the response to cytotoxic therapies or chemoembolization in conditions such as liver cancer or liver metastases from other cancers.
CYFRA 21-1 may also be elevated in the sera of patients with urological, gastrointestinal, and gynecological cancers.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. The correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings, and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.