The species of the genus Acinetobacter are immobile, Gram-negative bacteria. Acinetobacter is widespread in nature and is found in soil, water, and the skin, with more common locations in the area under the armpits and in the groin. It is able to survive on various surfaces, both wet and dry, for long periods of time. Acinetobacter can also be isolated from foods, especially vegetables and fruits.
Members of the genus Acinetobacter are recognized as important hospital pathogens, with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most important pathogen for humans. They can remain in the hospital environment for a long time and often cause serious, life-threatening infections in severely ill and immunocompromised patients. Acinetobacter has the ability to form biomembranes that is almost impermeable to antimicrobials and can be found in many medical devices (catheters, etc.).
Acinetobacter-induced infections include ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), urinary tract infections, septicemia, skin and trauma infections (mainly post-operative), meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, etc.
Acinetobacter is resistant to many classes of antibiotics such as penicillins (including ampicillin and amoxicillin), chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, etc. In recent years, there has been a very large increase in resistant strains. Currently, carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, etc.) are considered to be the most effective drugs against Acinetobacter.