The measurement of specific IgG antibodies against serum phosphatidylglycerol is used as a complementary test in the diagnostic approach of antiphospholipid syndrome.
Antibodies against phosphatidylglycerol belong to the group of antiphospholipid antibodies. Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies against various phospholipids, whose increased concentration is indicative of antiphospholipid syndrome. Phosphatidylglycerol is a glycerophospholipid of biological membranes. Phosphatidylglycerol is negatively charged and is mainly found in the lung surfactant. Antibodies against phosphatidylglycerol do not belong to the laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome and are therefore used only as an indication when the main diagnostic antibodies are absent.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, Hughes syndrome) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis, pregnancy complications as well as some laboratory abnormalities. The diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome requires the presence of at least one clinical and one laboratory criterion.
Clinical criteria include vascular thrombosis (arterial or venous or small vessel thrombosis in any organ or tissue) and pregnancy morbidity (unexplained fetal death over 10 weeks, preterm labor, severe preeclampsia, or preeclampsia). Other clinical manifestations including heart valve disease, reticular pellucida, thrombocytopenia, nephropathy and neurological symptoms often associated with antiphospholipid syndrome are not included in the diagnostic criteria.
Laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome are the presence of anticoagulant lupus, the presence of IgG and / or IgM antibodies against cardiolipin and the presence of IgG and / or IgM antibodies against β2 glycoprotein I (β2 GPI). All antibodies must be present in at least 2 separate tests and the tests should be conducted at least 12 weeks apart. IgA antibodies against cardiolipin and β2 glycoprotein I are not part of the laboratory criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome.
Antiphospholipid syndrome can be classified as primary (when not associated with obvious underlying disease) or secondary (when associated with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus).
Possible Interpretation of Pathological Values
- Increase: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (Hughes Syndrome), Behcet’s disease, cerebral palsy, Huntington, diabetic muscle infarction, epilepsy, essential thrombocythemia, giant cell arteritis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), IVF failure embryo, polymyalgia rheumatica, preeclampsia, renal insufficiency graft, obstructive retinal vasculopathy, syphilis, temporal arteritis, venous thrombosis, varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Medications: Minocycline