Serum uric acid measurement is used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of kidney failure and many other disorders including gout, leukemia, psoriasis as well as to monitor patients receiving cytotoxic drugs.
Uric acid is formed as the adenine and guanine purines are continuously metabolized during the formation and degradation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and by the metabolism of the purines consumed by the diet. After its synthesis in the liver by the action of xanthine oxidase, part of the uric acid is excreted in the urine. When increased amounts of uric acid circulate in the serum (hyperuricemia), they are deposited in the joints and soft tissues and cause gout, an inflammatory reaction to the deposition of uric acid crystals. Increased cellular renewal and decreased renal excretion of uric acid may cause hyperuricemia. Increased amounts of uric acid in the urine can lead to kidney stones.
Purine-rich foods that can contribute to gout include caffeinated soft drinks, anchovies, vegetables, spinach, asparagus, mushrooms, meats, liver, sauces, yeast.
Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
- Increase: Alcoholism, anemia (hemolytic, malignant, sickle cell), arteriosclerosis, arthritis, beryllylation (chronic), increased body size (above average), calcium, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, with excess nucleoproteins), Down syndrome, eclampsia, exercise, fasting, glomerulonephritis (chronic), Graves disease, gout, hemolysis (prolonged), hepatic disease, hypertension or hypertensive vascular injury, hyperuricemia, hyperuricemia acne, intestinal obstruction, ketoacidosis, ketosis, lead poisoning, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, leukemia, lipoproteinemia (type III), lymphoma, urinary odor like maple syrup, mumps, neoplasm, pneumonia (on lysis), polycystic kidneys, true polycythemia, pregnancy (onset of labor), psoriasis, kidney failure, sarcoidosis, hunger, anxiety, pregnancy toxinemia, uremia, urinary obstruction, urinary tract obstruction, . Medications: acetazolamide, asparaginase, busulfan, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin, daunorubicin hydrochloride, dextran, diazoxide, diltiazem, diuretics (except spironolactone), epinephrine, ethacrynic acid, ethambutol, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), fructose, furosemide, gentamycin sulfate, glucose, hydralazine, hydrocortisone, hydroxyurea, ibufenac, levodopa, mecamylamine, mechlorethamine hydrochloride, 6-mercaptopurine, methicillin, methotrexil, methylotrepine nicotinic acid (large doses), norepinephrine, phenothiazines, probenecid, propranolol, propylthiuracil, pyrazinamide, quinetazone, rifampicin, salicylates (low doses), theophylline, thiazolidine, theophylline
- Decrease: Acromegaly, bronchogenic carcinoma, celiac disease, Fanconi syndrome, Hodgkin's disease, myeloma, pernicious anemia, Wilson's disease, liver atrophy, xanthinuria. Medications: acetohexamide, ACTH, allopurinol, anticoagulants, azlocillin, azathioprine, bacitracin, chlorpromazine hydrochloride, chlorprothixene, chlorthalidone, corticosteroids, corticotropin, cortisone, coumarin, dicumarol, ethacrynic acid, lithium carbonate, mannitol, marijuana, oxyphenbutazone, phenothiazines, phenylbutazone, piperazine , potassium oxalate, probenecid, silicones, salicylates (long-term, large doses), saline infusions, sodium oxalate, sulfinopyrazone, thyroid hormone, triamterene. Herbal or natural treatments with products containing aristolic acids.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.