Molecular testing for atypical Mycobacteria is used for the rapid and high specificity and sensitivity of detection of these microorganisms by a variety of biological materials.
The atypical Mycobacterium cluster (Mycobacterium avium Complex) is a group of 28 serotypes of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare, with some researchers classifying this group and the subspecies Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. These species are non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria with a single chromosome of approximately 5.5 million nucleotides and plasmids that differ between strains. They can only be stained with the classical Gram microbiological stain and only with the acidic stain (Ziehl-Neelsen).
Inhalation or ingestion of Mycobacteria allows entry into the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Bacteria are phagocytosed by phagocytes but due to their resistance to various pHs, they are able to multiply in this environment, eventually kill the phagocytes, destroy the cells and then freely enter the bloodstream. This is especially the case for people with an immune system disorder.
Infection with species of the Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with suppressed immune systems leads to symptoms such as fever, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain or pulmonary symptoms such as chest pain, depending on the area of infection. Infection in people without reduced immunity can lead to inflammation of the lymph nodes.
The species of the Mycobacterium avium complex are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. This reduces the number of drugs that can be used against these germs, with treatment usually involving many drugs and for a long period of time. Atypical Mycobacteria are resistant to chlorine and other mild disinfectants.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.