This test checks the urine for the presence of morphine.
The milky residue collected from the poppy plant (opium) is the natural material from which opioids can be extracted or synthesized. Opium contains morphine and codeine in a ratio of about 10: 1. Semi-synthetic opioids derived from opium include (among others): hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and heroin. Opioids are characterized by their analgesic properties, similar chemical structure, tendency to create physical dependence in users and to develop tolerance with prolonged use. Codeine is an oral analgesic and is often prescribed in combination with paracetamol, aspirin or other medications. Codeine is converted into morphine in the body and then both are excreted in the urine. Morphine is mainly used in hospital as a powerful short-acting painkiller. Heroin is rapidly converted into 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and then morphine.
Physiological actions: Analgesia, respiratory depression, constipation. Prolonged use leads to dependence and tolerance, so a very large dose increase is needed for the same analgesic effect. Tolerance begins after the initial dose, but usually becomes significant after the second week of use. For the same effect, a 35-fold increase in dose may be necessary. Withdrawal symptoms can start 6-8 hours after the last dose and reach a maximum in 36-72 hours.
Psychological actions: Repression, euphoria, mental blurring.
Toxicity: Respiratory depression and respiratory failure are the major risk associated with opioid abuse in addition to the risk of infections associated with illicit intravenous drug use.
The test detects morphine, codeine, ethylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, levorphanol, 6-acetylmorphine, 3-β-D-glucuronide morphine, narcodine, normorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphine.