Measurement of serum magnesium levels is useful in monitoring preeclampsia patients treated with magnesium sulfate.
Measurement of magnesium levels (Mg) is used as an indicator for the body's metabolic activity (such as carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, muscle tissue contraction) and kidney function, because 95% of Magnesium filtered through the threads [SK1] is reabsorbed into the renal tubes. Most of the body's magnesium, which is an electrolyte, is concentrated in the bones, cartilage, and cells. In addition, magnesium is essential in the blood clotting mechanism. Magnesium regulates neuromuscular irritation, acts as a cofactor that modifies the activity of many enzymes and has a significant effect on calcium metabolism. Magnesium along with potassium are the most important intracellular cations.
Symptoms of hypermagnesemia include lethargy, drowsiness, flushing, nausea, vomiting, speech disorders, hypotension, weakness or absence of tendon reflexes, changes in electrocardiogram (such as prolongation of PR and QT interval, enlargement of QRS, enlargement of QRS, enlargement of QRS).
Magnesium rich foods include seafood, meats, green vegetables, whole grains and nuts. Excessive phosphate intake prevents the absorption of both magnesium and calcium.
Concentration of magnesium in the serum provides only an approximate estimate of magnesium adequacy or deficiency. Hypomagnesemia indicates a sufficient lack of magnesium, but the absence of hypomagnesemia cannot rule out significant magnesium deficiency. Serum magnesium concentration is not associated with any magnesium ion reservoir except interstitial fluid.
Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
- Increase (Hypermagnesaemia): Addison's disease, ataxia, severe dehydration, diabetes (uncontrolled diabetes, diabetic acidosis, controlled diabetes in elderly patients), arrhythmias, hypercalcaemia, leukemia, hypothyroidism, hypophosphataemia, nephrolithiasis, leukemia (lymphocytic and myelocytic), mood disorders, parenteral nutrition, kidney failure or kidney damage. Medications: Magnesium-containing antacids, calcium-containing drugs, laxatives, thyroid medicines.
- Decrease (hypomagnesaemia): Acute tubular necrosis (diuretic phase), chronic alcoholism, aldosteronism, Bartter's syndrome, complications of colon resection, convulsions, diabetic ketoacidosis, chronic diarrhea, arrhythmia, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperbilirubinemia insufficiency, hypokalaemia, hypercalcaemia, hyperthyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, intravenous magnesium-free solutions, ketoacidosis, kwashiorkor (severe malnutrition), laxative abuse, tetanus deficiency syndrome, insufficient tetanus atitis (chronic, acute), phosphate depletion, postoperative, primary hyperaldosteronism, prolonged gastric drainage, reduced magnesium intake, reduced magnesium absorption (specific malabsorption of magnesium, generalized diabetic or generalized syndrome, generalized syndrome kidney disease (chronic), kidney damage of magnesium absorption, kidney transplant, renal tubular acidosis, stress with excess catecholamines, tetanus, pregnancy toxinemia, ulcerative colitis, increase of extracellular fluid volume. Medications: Alcohol, amphotericin B, some antibiotics (neomycin, aminoglycosides), calcium gluconate, cisplatin, citrate, corticosteroids, cyclosporin A, diuretics (anchor, thiazidic acid, furosemide) mannitol, urea.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.