The measurement of ICAM-1 in various biological fluids is carried out for research purposes only at Diagnostiki Athinon.
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), also known as CD45, is a member of the immunoglobulin family and is expressed primarily on the surface of endothelial cells and on cells of the immune system.
Following stimulation through cytokines the concentration of ICAM-1 is increased.
The role of ICAM-1 as a biological marker has been established for a number of different pathological conditions:
- Allergic airway inflammation (allergic asthma) and the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.
- In contact allergic dermatitis
- In bladder cancer, there is a direct correlation between the expression of ICAM-1 and the degree of tumor differentiation. In patients with gastrointestinal cancer and liver metastases, ICAM-1 levels are significantly higher than in patients without metastases.
- In lymphoproliferative disorders, ICAM-1 is associated with the degree of malignancy. In HTLV-1-related myelopathy and in adult T-cell leukemia, serum ICAM-1 is elevated.
- Patients with malignant melanoma have significantly elevated serum sICAM-1 levels and are of prognostic significance.
- Significantly elevated sICAM-1 concentrations were detected in patients with HIV-1 infection.
- In malaria, ICAM-1 serves to attach infected erythrocytes to the capillary endothelium, an important event in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.
- ICAM-1 is a good prognostic parameter for the response of hepatitis B to IFN-β therapy.
- ICAM-1 is a reliable indicator for inflammatory processes within the central nervous system related to blood-CSF disorder.
- ICAM-1 appears to provide the mechanism important for rejection of the corneal graft.
- ICAM-1 expression is also increased during rejection in a transplanted heart.
- Serum ICAM-1 is significantly increased during acute renal transplant rejection. Measurement of sICAM-1 is useful in distinguishing rejection from cyclosporin-A poisoning.
- Strong expression of ICAM-1 is also observed in patients with acute liver transplant rejection.
- Circulating ICAM-1 levels were found in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and in people at risk of developing the disease.
- Significant increases in serum ICAM-1 have been reported in patients with uveitis and in patients with sarcoidosis.
- ICAM-1 is significantly increased in the sera of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
- Increased levels of sICAM-1 are associated with rheumatoid arthritis activity.
- In psoriasis, ICAM-1 shows a strong correlation with the severity of the disease and decreases with successful treatment. Prior to treatment, ICAM-1 levels were elevated compared to healthy controls.
- ICAM-1 is not detectable in most amniotic fluid samples in pregnant women, but when elevated, it is associated with intrauterine growth retardation.
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.