Blood sugar measurement is used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of diabetes and other carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including gestational diabetes, neonatal hypoglycaemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia and cancer of pancreatic islet.
Sugar or glucose is a monosaccharide found naturally in fruits. It is also formed by the digestion of carbohydrates and the conversion of glycogen by the liver and is the main source of cellular energy in the body. Glucose is essential for the functioning of the brain and erythrocytes. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells.
Hormones that affect glucose metabolism include insulin, glucagon, thyroxine, somatostatin, cortisol and epinephrine. Measuring fasting blood sugar levels is used in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and hypoglycaemia. Testing of sugar in a random blood sample is usually done for a non-specific assessment of carbohydrate metabolism.
Possible Interpretations of Pathological Values
- Increase: Acromegaly, anesthesia, burns, poisoning with carbon monoxide, stroke, convulsions, Cushing's disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, eclampsia, encephalitis, erectile dysfunction, gigantism, hemochromatosis, bleeding, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotik coma, hyperthyroidism , hyperphyphism, hypertension, hypervitamin A (chronic), infections, injury, malnutrition (chronic), meningitis, myocardial infarction, obesity, pancreatic carcinoma, pancreatic insufficiency (pancreatitis), pheochromocytoma, pituitary adenoma, pregnancy, shock, hypereachnoid hemorrhage, stress, Wernicke encephalopathy. Drugs: Anabolic steroids, androgens, arginine, ascorbic acid, asparaginase, aspirin, atenolol, baclofen, benzodiazepines, bisacodyl (extended use), chlorpromazine, chlorthalidone, cimetidine, clonidine, corticosteroids, corticotropin, dextran, dextrothyroxine, diazoxide, phosphate, disopyramide, epinephrine , epinephrine dihydrate, epinephrine borate, epinephrine hydrochloride, estrogen, ethacrylic acid, furosemide, glucose infusions, haloperidol, imipramine, isoproterenol hydrochloride, heparin hydrochloride, hydrochloride rothiazide, indomethacin, isoniazid, levodopa, levothyroxine, lithium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide (prolonged use at high doses), meperidine, mercaptopurine, methimazole, methyldopa, metronidazole, metronidazole, metronidazole , p-aminosalicylic acid, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, progestins, promethazine hydrochloride, propranolol (in diabetic patients), propylthiouracil, protease inhibitors, reserpine, rifabridine, rifabicar, adenine, terbutaline sulfate, tetracyclines, thiazides / thiazide diuretics, thyroglobulin, thyroid medicines, tolbutamide, triametherene
- Decrease: Addison Disease, Adrenal Brain Failure, Alcoholism, Cancer (Adrenal, Stomach, Fibrosarcoma), Cirrhosis, Cretinism, Diabetes Mellitus (Early), Exercise, Fever, Gastric Disease (Forbes Disease) fructose, galactosemia, glucagon deficiency, hepatic phosphorylase deficiency (glycogen storage disease type VI), hepatitis, hyperinsulinemia, hypophysis, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, hypertensive diabetic, infant diabetic mothers, kwashiorkor, leucine sensitivity, malnutrition, maple syrup urine disease, muscular phosphofructokinase deficiency (type VII glycogen storage disease), myxoedema, pancreatic islet cells, Reye's syndrome, Simmonds' disease, Vomiting, von Gierke's disease (glycogen storage disease type I), Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Zetterstrom syndrome. Medications: Paracetamol, allopurinol, amphetamines, aspirin, atenolol, beta-adrenergic blockers, caffeine, cerivastatin, chlorpropamide, clofibrate, disodium edetate, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), gatifloxacin sulfate, guanethidine, isoniazid, insulin, isocarboxazid, marijuana, nitrazepam, from oral hypoglycaemic agents, p-aminosalicylic acid, arginine hydrochloride, phenacetin, phenazopyridine, phenelzine sulfate, phenformin, propranolol (in diabetics),tetracyclines, theophylline, tranylcypromine sulfate
Laboratory test results are the most important parameter for the diagnosis and monitoring of all pathological conditions. 70%-80% of diagnostic decisions are based on laboratory tests. Correct interpretation of laboratory results allows a doctor to distinguish "healthy" from "diseased".
Laboratory test results should not be interpreted from the numerical result of a single analysis. Test results should be interpreted in relation to each individual case and family history, clinical findings and the results of other laboratory tests and information. Your personal physician should explain the importance of your test results.
At Diagnostiki Athinon we answer any questions you may have about the test you perform in our laboratory and we contact your doctor to get the best possible medical care.